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**Engineering Courses Entrance Examination Syllabus **

The syllabus published in the prospectus are only outlines of the topics, sub-topic that will be covered in our ‘Smart Learning’ & ‘Self Assessor’ Interface. Since the examination are of highly competitive nature and the scheme of the competing students has to be found out through a process of elimination, questions that will be used in exam will be of applied nature of higher order on topics that can be expected.

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**SYLLABUS**

**PHYSICS**

__UNIT I: PHYSICAL WORLD AND MEASUREMENT __

Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

__UNIT II: KINEMATICS__

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.

Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

__UNIT III: LAWS OF MOTION__

**Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s **second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

__UNIT IV: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER__

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimension

__UNIT V: MOTION OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND RIGID BODY__

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod, circular ring, disc and sphere. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications

__UNIT VI: GRAVITATION__

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

__UNIT VII: PROPERTIES OF BULK MATTER__

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: C p , C v – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.

Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect. Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

__UNIT VIII: THERMODYNAMICS__

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

__UNIT IX: BEHAVIOUR OF PERFECT GAS AND KINETIC THEORY__

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure.

Avogadro’s number. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

__UNIT X: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES__

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring – restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM – kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

__UNIT XI: ELECTROSTATICS__

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

__UNIT XII: CURRENT ELECTRICITY__

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors

colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff ’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

__UNIT XIII: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM__

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current- carrying conductors – definition of ampere.

Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid

Magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

__UNIT XIV: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS__

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.

AC generator and transformer.

__UNIT XV: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES__

Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

__UNIT XVI: OPTICS__

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens- maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.

Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

__UNIT XVII: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION__

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light.

Matter waves – wave nature of particles, De Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.

__UNIT XVIII: ATOMS AND NUCLEI__

Alpha - particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

__UNIT XIX: ELECTRONIC DEVICES__

Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier, Transistor as a switch (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

__UNIT XX: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS__

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.

**CHEMISTRY**

__UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY__

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

__UNIT 2: STRUCTURE OF ATOM__

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

__UNIT 3: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES__

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements –atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

__UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE__

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

__UNIT 5: STATES OF MATTER: GASES , LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS__

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points,role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Solid State - Classification of solids based on different binding forces :molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids ,number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals ,conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

__UNIT 6: THERMODYNAMICS__

Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction.

__UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM__

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

__UNIT 8 : REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY__

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers , applications of redox reactions. Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

__UNIT 9 : SOLUTIONS__

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law , elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Vant Hoff factor.

__UNIT 10: CHEMICAL KINETICS__

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

__UNIT 11: SURFACE CHEMISTRY__

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis :homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.

__UNIT 12:HYDROGEN AND S- BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)__

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, use and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.

Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3, and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

__UNIT 13: P-BLOCK ELEMENTS__

General Introduction to p-Block Elements

__Group 13 elements__: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

__Group 14 elements__: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses : silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

__Group 15 elements__: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine ,halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

__Group 16 elements__ : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

__Group 17 elements__ : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

__Group 18 elements__: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

__UNIT 14: D AND F BLOCK ELEMENTS__

General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthenoids .

__UNIT 15: COORDINATION COMPOUNDS__

Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; isomerism (structural and stereo)importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

__UNIT 16:GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS__

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

__UNIT 17: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES__

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

__UNIT 18: HYDROCARBONS__

Classification of Hydrocarbons. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance, aromaticity ; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

__UNIT 19: HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES__

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

__UNIT 20: ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS__

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

__UNIT 21: ALDEHYDES, KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS__

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

__UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN__

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

__UNIT 23: BIOMOLECULES__

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), DL configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance. Proteins - Elementary idea of a - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones –Elementary idea (excluding structure). Vitamins – Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

__UNIT 24: POLYMERS__

Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

__UNIT 25: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE__

1. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. 2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. 3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

__UNIT 26: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY__

Environmental pollution – Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

**MATHEMATICS**

__UNIT I: ALGEBRA__

**Sets, Relations and Functions**

Sets and their representations: Finite and Infinite sets; Empty set; Equal sets; Subsets; Power set; Universal set; Venn Diagrams; Complement of a set; Operations on Sets (Union, Intersection and Difference of Set); Applications of sets: Ordered Pairs, Cartesian Product of Two sets; Relations, reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. Domain, Co-domain and Range: Functions: into, onto, one - one into, one-one onto Functions; Constant Function; Identity Function; composition of Functions; Invertible Functions; Binary Operations.

**Complex Numbers**

Complex Numbers in the form ^{a + I b }; Real and Imaginary Parts of a complex Number; Complex Conjugate, Argand Diagram, Representation of Complex Number as a point in the plane; Modulus and Argument of a Complex Number; Algebra of Complex Numbers; Triangle Inequality; |Z_{1 }+ Z_{2 }|≤ |Z_{1 }|+|Z_{2 }|; |Z_{1 }._{ }Z_{2 }|= | Z_{1 }|| Z_{2 }|; Polar Representation of a Complex Number and square root of a complex number. Solution of a Quadratic Equation in the Complex Number System.

**Sequences and Series**

Sequence and Examples of Finite and Infinite Sequences; Arithmetic Progression (A..P): First Term, Common Difference, nth Term and sum of n terms of an A.P.; Arithmetic Mean (A.M); Insertion of Arithmetic Means between any Two given Numbers; Geometric Progression (G.P): first Term, Common Ratio and nth term, Sum to n Terms, infinite GP and its sum. Geometric Mean (G.M); Insertion of Geometric Means, Relation between AM and GM. between any two given numbers . Formula for finding the sum of first n natural numbers, sum of the squares of first n natural numbers and sum of the cubes of first n natural numbers.

**Permutations, Combinations, Binomial Theorem and Mathematical Induction**

Fundamental Principle of Counting; The Factorial Notation; Permutation as an Arrangement; Meaning of P(n, r); Combination: Meaning of C(n,r); Applications of Permutations and Combinations. Statement of Binomial Theorem; Proof of Binomial Theorem for positive integral Exponent using Principle of Mathematical Induction and also by combinatorial Method; General and Middle Terms in Binomial Expansions; Properties of Binomial Coefficients; Binomial Theorem for any Index (without proof); Application of Binomial Theorem. The Principle of Mathematical Induction, simple Applications.

**Matrices and Determinants**

Concept of a Matrix; Types of Matrices; Equality of Matrices (only real entries may be considered): Operations of Addition, Scalar Multiplication and Multiplication of Matrices; Statement of Important Results on operations of Matrices and their Verifications by Numerical Problem only; Determinant of a Square Matrix; Minors and Cofactors; singular and non-singular Matrices; Applications of Determinants in finding the Area of a Triangle. Concept of elementary row and column operations. Transpose, Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix; Consistency and Inconsistency of a system of Linear Equations; Solving System of Linear Equations in Two or Three variables using Inverse of a Matrix (only up to 3X3 Determinants and Matrices should be considered).

**Linear Inequalities**

Solutions of Linear Inequalities in one variable and its Graphical Representation; solution of system of Linear Inequalities in one variable; Graphical solutions of Linear Inequalities in two variables; solution of system of Linear Inequalities in two variables.

**Mathematical Reasoning**

Mathematically acceptable statements and their Negation. Connecting words /phrases consolidating the understanding of if and only if condition, implies, and/or, implied by, there exists. Validating the statements involving the connecting words, difference among contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

__UNIT II : TRIGONOMETRY__

Trigonometric functions and Inverse Trigonometric functions Degree measures and Radian measure of positive and negative angles; relation between degree measure and radian measure, definition of trigonometric functions with the help of a unit circle, periodic functions, concept of periodicity of trigonometric functions, value of trigonometric functions of x for x = 0, 6 p , 4 p , 3 p , 2 p , 2p, p3 ; trigonometric functions of sum andp, 2 difference of numbers.

Sinx Sin y ;mCosxCos y = ) y±x (Cosx Sin y ;Cos± SinxCos y = ) y±x (Sin ) ( Tan xTan y Tan x Tan y Tan x y m1 ± = ± ; Sinx ;- = )x-(Cos x , Sin = )x-(Cosx ; Cos= ) x± p2(Sinx ,Cos± = )x± p2(Sin Sin x) x(Cos 2 ± = ± p Cos x) x(S 2 = ± pin Sinx± = ) x± p(Cosx , Sin - = ) x± p(;Cos

**Trigonometric functions of multiple and submultiples of numbers.**

Sinx S x ; 2x Cos 1 2 2 1= 2 Sin xCos x ; 3 3 - 4 in3 Sin x =Sin2 x ;- Cos x = Sin x - = Sin x - x =2 2 2 2 Cos Cos 3x 4Cos x 3Cos x

Tan x 2 3 1 3 3 Tan x - Tan 3 - = ; ÷ ø ö ç è - æ ÷ ø ö ç è + æ = + 2 2 x y x Sin y 2Sin x y Sin Cos ; ÷ ø ö ç è æ ÷ ø ö ç è + æ = + 2 x - y Cos 2 x y Cos x Cos y 2Co

Sin x Sin y 2Cos ; ÷ ø ö ç è æ ÷ ø ö ç è + æ = - 2 x - y Sin 2 x y Cos x Cos y - 2Si

Conditional identities for the angles of a triangle, solution of trigonometric equations of the type Sin x = Sin a ; Cos x = Cos a; Tan x = Tan a and equations reducible to these forms. Proofs and simple application of sine and cosine formulae.Inverse Trigonometric functions. Range, domain, principal value branch and graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.

x= )Sin x((i) Sin Co x) (-1 and other similar formula (ii) x = --1 1 Sin 1 sec and other similar formula. Sin x) x(Sin Tan x) x( , Tan - = -1 -1 - Co x) x( ; Co - = -1 -1 - 1 1 ( )) ( , - = - - -sec sec 1 1 Cos x Cos x ;- p = - - - ( )) ( 1 1 Sec x Sec x ( )) ( , - p = - - -

1-Sin 1- Cos +x -1p =x 1- Cot +x p =x ; 2 1-sec ( ) ( ) Co 1- Sec+x p =x ; , xy -1 1 ÷ >1 1 1 ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + - = - - - - xy x y Tan x Tan y Tan

Tan x Tan y Tan ; , x 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 <1 1

**Simple problems**

**Graph of the following trigonometric functions;**

y = Sin x ; y = Cos x ; y = Tan x ; y = a Sin x ;y = a Cos x, y = a Sin bx ; y = a Cos bx;

__UNIT III: GEOMETRY__

**Lines and Family of lines **

Cartesian system of coordinates in a plane, shifting of origin. Distance formula, Slope of line, parallel and perpendicular lines. Various forms of equations of a line parallel to axes, slopeintercept form, The Slope point form, Intercept form, Normal form, General form, Intersection of lines. Equation of bisectors of angle between two lines, Angles between two lines, condition for concurrency of three lines, Distance of a point from a line, Equations of family of lines through the intersection of two lines.

**Conic sections **

Sections of a cone. Circles, standard form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre. Equations of conic sections [Parabola, Ellipse and Hyperbola] in standard form and simple properties.

**Vectors**

Vectors and scalars, Magnitude and Direction of a vector, Types of vectors (Equal vectors, unit vector, Zero vector). Position vector of a point, Localized and free vectors, parallel and collinear vectors, Negative of a vector, components of a vector, Addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of point dividing a line segment in a given ratio, Application of vectors in geometry. Scalar product of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line, vector product of two vectors.

**Three-Dimensional Geometry**

Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensional space, coordinate of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines, and direction ratios of a line joining two points, projection of the join of two points on a given line, Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, Cartesian and vector equation of a line through (i) a point and parallel to a given vector (ii) through two points, Collinearity of three points, coplanar and skew lines, Shortest distance between two lines, Condition for the intersection of two lines, Cartesian and vector equation of a plane (i) When the normal vector and the distance of the plane from the origin is given (ii) passing through a point and perpendicular to a given vector (iii) Passing through a point and parallel to two given lines through the intersection of two other planes (iv) containing two lines (v) passing through three points, Angle between (i) two lines (ii) two planes (iii) a line and a plane, Condition of coplanarity of two lines in vector and Cartesian form, length of perpendicular of a point from a plane by both vector and Cartesian methods.

__Unit IV: STATISTICS__

**Statistics and probability**

Mean deviation, variance, standard deviation for grouped an ungrouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances. Random experiments and sample space, Events as subset of a sample space, occurrence of an event, sure and impossible events, Exhaustive events, Algebra of events, Meaning of equality likely outcomes, mutually exclusive events. Probability of an event; Theorems on probability; Addition rule, Multiplication rule, Independent experiments and events. Finding P (A or B), P (A and B), Bayes' theorem, random variables, Probability distribution of a random variable and its mean and variance. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

__UNIT V : CALCULUS__

**Functions, Limits and continuity**

Concept of a real function; its domain and range; Modulus Function, Greatest integer function: Signum functions; Trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions and their graphs; composite functions, Inverse of a function.

Limit of a function; meaning and related notations; Left and right hand limits;Fundamental

lim , 0; lim 1; lim 0 0 =1

theorems on limits without proof

lim 0 = + x® x x Continuity of a function at a point, over an open/ closed interval; Sum, Product and quotient of continuous functions; Continuity of special functions- Polynomial, Trigonometric, exponential, Logarithmic and Inverse trigonometric functions.

**Differentiation**

Derivative of a function; its geometrical and physical significance; Relationship between continuity and differentiability; Derivatives of polynomial, basic trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic and inverse trigonometric functions from first principles; derivatives of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions; derivatives of polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, inverse trigonometric and implicit functions; Logarithmic differentiation; derivatives of functions expressed in parametric form; chain rule and differentiation by substitution; Derivatives of Second order.

**Application of Derivatives**

Rate of change of quantities; Tangents and Normals; increasing and decreasing functions and sign of the derivatives; maxima and minima; Greatest and least values; Rolle's theorem and Mean value theorem; Approximation by differentials. Simple problems.

**Indefinite Integrals**

Integration as inverse of differentiation; properties of integrals; Integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions; Integration by substitution; Integration by parts; Integrals of the type:

**Definite Integrals**

Definite integral as limit of a sum; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus without proof; Evaluation of definite integrals by substitution and by using the following properties.

Application of definite integrals in finding areas bounded by a curve, circle, parabola and ellipse in standard form between two ordinates and x-axis; Area between two curves, line and circle; line and parabola: line and ellipse.

Differential Equations

Definition; order and degree; general and particular solutions of a differential equation; formation of differential equations whose general solution is given; solution of differential equations by method of Separation of variables; Homogeneous differential equations of first order and their solutions; Solution of linear differential equations of the type x) dx d where P (x), Q (x) are functions of x or constants.

**Linear Programming**

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, 0bjective function, optimisation, different types of linear programming problems, mathematical formulation of Linear Programming Problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions ( up to three non-trivial constraints).